Indian Muslim Theologians’ Response to British Colonization of India and Introduction of Modernization: A Study of Deoband School of Thought

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Dr. Muhammad Naveed Akhtar
Dr. Nasir Ali Khan
Asia Mukhtar

Abstract

During the nineteenth century, the Muslims of India suffered from severe political decline, as the Mughal Empire was abolished in the wake of Great Revolt 1857. The British started a process of modernization of institutions as well as that of social setup. The Muslim theologians realizing it a serious threat to their religio-cultural values and norms resisted it through militant struggle, setting up educational institutions, making political parties and participating in democratic process, and forming missionary and reformist organizations. This paper explores and evaluates the contribution of the Muslim theologians who founded Darul Ulum Deoband movement and advocated for the orthodox religious educations by adhering to the religious and educational philosophy of Shah Wali Allah. It attempts at evaluating the socio-political circumstance of South Asia which became the rationale of this movement and identifies the major historical landmarks of this movement during the British Raj in India. It examines the factors which helped Deoband school of thought emerge to be one of the dominant sect of Islam. The paper however argues that although the Deoband theologians were severe critics of British imperialism and its initiatives towards modernization of Indian society and culture, yet they adopted British bureaucratic setup for the educational advancements, and gradually got convinced to be the part of democratic process demonstrate the political strength of South Asian Muslims. The methodology employed in the discourse is descriptive, analytical, and normative.

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How to Cite
Akhtar, M. N., nasir ali kahan, dr, & mukhtar, asia. (2022). Indian Muslim Theologians’ Response to British Colonization of India and Introduction of Modernization: A Study of Deoband School of Thought . Al-Duhaa, 3(01), 90–103. https://doi.org/10.51665/al-duhaa.003.01.0161